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    Форум Cайта » Plants & Life » Plants » Genetic Transformation In Plants
    Genetic Transformation In Plants
    Syler_91Date: Sunday, 09.11.2014, 08:38 | Message # 1
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    To achieve genetic transformation in plants, we need the construction of a vector (genetic vehicle) which transports the genes of
    interest, flanked by the necessary controlling sequences i.e. promoter
    and terminator, and deliver the genes into the host plant. The two kinds
    of gene transfer methods in plants are:

    Vector-mediated or indirect gene transfer

    Among the various vectors used in plant transformation, the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely used. This bacteria is known as “natural genetic
    engineer” of plants because these bacteria have natural ability to
    transfer T-DNA of their plasmids into plant genome upon infection of
    cells at the wound site and cause an unorganized growth of a cell mass
    known as crown gall. Ti plasmids are used as gene vectors for delivering
    useful foreign genes into target plant cells and tissues. The foreign
    gene is cloned in the T-DNA region of Ti-plasmid in place of unwanted
    sequences.
    To transform plants, leaf discs (in case of dicots) or embryogenic callus (in case of monocots) are collected and infected with Agrobacterium carrying recombinant disarmed Ti-plasmid vector. The infected tissue is
    then cultured (co-cultivation) on shoot regeneration medium for 2-3
    days during which time the transfer of T-DNA along with foreign genes
    takes place. After this, the transformed tissues (leaf discs/calli) are
    transferred onto selection cum plant regeneration medium supplemented
    with usually lethal concentration of an antibiotic to selectively
    eliminate non-transformed tissues. After 3-5 weeks, the regenerated
    shoots (from leaf discs) are transferred to root-inducing medium, and
    after another 3-4 weeks, complete plants are transferred to soil
    following the hardening (acclimatization) of regenerated plants. The
    molecular techniques like PCR and southern hybridization are used to
    detect the presence of foreign genes in the transgenic plants.
    Vectorless or direct gene transfer

    In the direct gene transfer methods, the foreign gene of
    interest is delivered into the host plant cell without the help of a
    vector. The methods used for direct gene transfer in plants are:

    Chemical mediated gene transfer e.g. chemicals like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran sulphate induce DNA
    uptake into plant protoplasts.Calcium phosphate is also used to
    transfer DNA into cultured cells.

    Microinjection where the DNA is directly injected into plant protoplasts or cells (specifically into the nucleus
    or cytoplasm) using fine tipped (0.5 - 1.0 micrometerdiameter) glass
    needle or micropipette. This method of gene transfer is used to
    introduce DNA into large cells such as oocytes, eggs, and the cells of
    early embryo.
    Electroporation involves a pulse of high voltage applied to protoplasts/cells/ tissues to make transient
    (temporary) pores in the plasma membrane which facilitates the uptake of
    foreign DNA.
    The cells are placed in a solution containing DNA and
    subjected to electrical shocks to cause holes in the membranes. The
    foreign DNA fragments enter through the holes into the cytoplasm and
    then to nucleus.
    Particle gun/Particle bombardment - In this method, the foreign DNA containing the genes to be transferred is
    coated onto the surface of minute gold or tungsten particles (1-3
    micrometers) and bombarded onto the target tissue or cells using a
    particle gun (also called as gene gun/shot gun/microprojectile gun).The
    microprojectile bombardment method was initially named as biolistics by
    its inventor Sanford (1988). Two types of plant tissue are commonly used
    for particle bombardment- Primary explants and the proliferating
    embryonic tissues.
    Transformation - This method is used for introducing foreign DNA into bacterial cells e.g. E. Coli. The
    transformation frequency (the fraction of cell population that can be
    transferred) is very good in this method. E.g. the uptake of plasmid DNA
    by E. coli is carried out in ice cold CaCl2 (0-50C) followed by heat
    shock treatment at 37-450C for about 90 sec. The transformation
    efficiency refers to the number of transformants per microgram of added
    DNA. The CaCl2 breaks the cell wall at certain regions and binds the
    DNA to the cell surface.
    Conjuction - It is a natural microbial recombination process and is used as a method for gene transfer. In
    conjuction, two live bacteria come together and the single stranded DNA
    is transferred via cytoplasmic bridges from the donor bacteria to the
    recipient bacteria.
    Liposome mediated gene transfer or Lipofection - Liposomes are circular lipid molecules with an aqueous interior that
    can carry nucleic acids. Liposomes encapsulate the DNA fragments and
    then adher to the cell membranes and fuse with them to transfer DNA
    fragments. Thus, the DNA enters the cell and then to the nucleus.
    Lipofection is a very efficient technique used to transfer genes in
    bacterial, animal and plant cells.

    Selection of transformed cells from untransformed cells
    The selection of transformed plant cells from
    untransformed cells is an important step in the plant genetic
    engineering. For this, a marker gene (e.g. for antibiotic resistance) is
    introduced into the plant along with the transgene followed by the
    selection of an appropriate selection medium (containing the
    antibiotic). The segregation and stability of the transgene integration
    and expression in the subsequent generations can be studied by genetic
    and molecular analyses (Northern, Southern, Western blot, PCR).
     
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